Acute leukemia is a tumor lesion of the hematopoietic system, the morphological basis of which is immature (blast) cells that displace normal hematopoietic sprouts. To confirm the diagnosis, it is necessary to study the hemogram, bone marrow puncture, ileal bone biopsy and lymph nodes. The basis for the treatment of acute leukemia is chemotherapy courses and accompanying therapy.
Causes of acute leukemia
The root cause of acute leukemia is the mutation of the hematopoietic cell, which gives rise to a tumor clone. Mutation of the hematopoietic cell leads to a violation of its differentiation at an early stage of immature (blast) forms with further proliferation of the latter. The resulting tumor cells replace the normal germs of hemopoiesis in the bone marrow, and later go into the blood and are carried to various tissues and organs, causing their leukemia infiltration. All blast cells carry the same morphological and cytochemical signs, which indicates their clonal origin from one parent cell.
The causes that trigger the mutation process are not known. In hematology, it is customary to talk about risk factors that increase the likelihood of developing acute leukemia. First and foremost, this is a genetic predisposition: the presence of patients with acute leukemia practically triples the risk of illness in close relatives. The risk of acute leukemia increases with certain chromosomal abnormalities and genetic pathologies Down’s disease, Klinefelter’s syndrome, Wiskott-Aldrich and Louis Barr, Fanconi anemia, etc.
Treatment of acute leukemia
Patients with acute leukemia are treated in oncohematological hospitals. In the wards an enhanced sanitation and disinfection regime is being organized. Patients with acute leukemia require hygienic treatment of the oral cavity, prophylaxis of decubitus, toilet of the genital organs after physiological dispensations; organization of high-calorie and vitamin nutrition.
Directly treatment of acute leukemia is carried out consistently; the main stages of therapy include the achievement (induction) of remission, its consolidation (consolidation) and maintenance, prevention of complications. To this end, standardized polychemotherapy regimens have been developed and are being used by the hematologist, taking into account the morphological and cytochemical forms of acute leukemia.