Chronic leukemia is the primary tumor disease of the hematopoiesis system, the substrate of which is the mature and maturing cells of the myeloid or lymphoid series. Various forms of chronic leukemia occur with a predominance of intoxication (weakness, arthralgia, ossalgia, anorexia, weight loss), thrombohemorrhagic (bleeding, thrombosis of various localization), lymphoproliferative syndromes (enlargement of lymph nodes, splenomegaly, etc.). Crucial importance in the diagnosis of chronic leukemia belongs to the study of OAK, bone marrow and lymph node biopsy. Treatment of chronic leukemia is carried out by methods of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, bone marrow transplantation is possible.
Causes of chronic leukemia
The true causes leading to the development of chronic leukemia are unknown. Currently, the most recognized is the virus-genetic theory of hemoblastoses . According to this hypothesis, some types of viruses (including the Ebstein-Barr virus , retroviruses, etc.) are able to penetrate into immature hematopoietic cells and cause their unhindered division. There is also no doubt about the role of heredity in the origin of leukemia, since it is for certain known that the disease is often of a family nature. In addition, chronic myelogenous leukemia in 95% of cases is associated with an anomaly of the 22nd chromosome (Philadelphia or Ph chromosome), the fragment of the long arm is translocated to the 9th chromosome.
The most significant predisposing factors to various forms of chronic leukemia are the effects on the body of high doses of radiation, X-ray irradiation, industrial chemical hazards (varnishes, paints, etc.), drugs (gold salts, antibiotics, cytostatics), long-term smoking experience. The risk of developing chronic lymphocytic leukemia increases with prolonged contact with herbicides and pesticides, and chronic myeloid leukemia with radiation exposure.
Treatment of chronic leukemia
At early preclinical stage, treatment is ineffective, so patients are subject to dynamic observation. General-purpose measures presuppose elimination of physical overloads, stresses, insolation, electroprocedures and heat treatment; full-fledged vitamin nutrition, long walks in the fresh air.