Extraorganic retroperitoneal tumors are a group of malignant and benign neoplasms of mesodermal, neurogenic and embryogenic origin localized in the retroperitoneal space. Characteristic of a prolonged asymptomatic course. With retroperitoneal tumors of large size, dyspeptic disorders, micturition disorders, dyspnea, neurologic symptoms and swelling of the lower extremities are observed. At malignant lesions at the advanced stages signs of a cancer intoxication are revealed. The diagnosis is made taking into account the data of CT, MRI, ultrasound, biopsy and other studies.
Extraorganic retroperitoneal tumors are a group of neoplasms originating from retroperitoneal tissue, including fatty, muscular, connective and nerve tissue, lymph nodes, lymphatic and blood vessels, and embryonic elements. The group of retroperitoneal tumors does not include oncological processes in organs located in this space, as well as metastatic lesions of retroperitoneal lymph nodes in tumors of other localizations. The reasons for combining such diverse diseases in one group are similar features of the clinical course, general methods of diagnosis and therapy.
The retroperitoneal tumors can be both malignant and benign. They are rare, according to various data, they range from 0.03 to 0.3% of the total number of oncological diseases. Some experts believe that this figure is understated because of diagnostic difficulties in detecting this pathology. Discoverable mainly at the age of 50 years and older. Representatives of both sexes suffer equally often. The treatment is carried out by specialists in the field of oncology, neurology and vascular surgery.
The retroperitoneal space is the space between the posterior leaf of the peritoneum, the diaphragm, the muscles of the back, the spine and the muscles lining the bottom of the small pelvis. In this anatomical zone, the pancreas, kidneys, adrenals, ureters, part of the duodenum and part of the large intestine are localized. The space between the organs is filled with cellulose, in which nerve plexuses, lymph nodes, lymphatic and blood vessels are located. The retroperitoneal tissue is divided by fascia into several sections.
Extraorrhagic retroperitoneal tumors are any nodes located in a given space, with the exception of neoplasms originating from the organs listed above, as well as metastatic lesions of lymph nodes and tumors that grow into the retroperitoneal space from other anatomical zones (for example, from the abdominal cavity). The most popular classification of retroperitoneal tumors, created by Ackermann in 1954, is based on histogenetic features of neoplasia. According to this classification, there are three large subgroups of such neoplasms: mesodermal, neurogenic and derived from elements of embryonic tissues.