Iron deficiency anemia is a syndrome caused by iron deficiency and resulting in a violation of hemoglobinopoiesis and tissue hypoxia. Clinical manifestations of iron deficiency anemia are general weakness, drowsiness, reduced mental performance and physical endurance, noise in the ears, dizziness, fainting, shortness of breath when exercised, palpitations, paleness. Iron deficiency anemia is confirmed by laboratory data: a study of a clinical blood test, serum iron, OZSS and ferritin. Therapy includes a curative diet, the intake of iron preparations, in some cases transfusion of erythrocyte mass.
Causes of iron deficiency anemia
The development of iron deficiency and subsequent anemia can be due to various mechanisms. Most often iron deficiency anemia is caused by chronic blood loss: heavy menstruation, dysfunctional uterine bleeding; gastrointestinal bleeding from erosions of the gastric mucosa and intestines, gastroduodenal ulcers, hemorrhoids, anal fissures, etc.
Hidden but regular blood loss is noted in helminthiases, hemosiderosis of the lungs, exudative diathesis in children, etc. A special group consists of individuals with blood diseases hemorrhagic diathesis ( hemophilia, von Willebrand disease), hemoglobinuria.
Symptoms of iron deficiency anemia
Circulatory hypoxic syndrome in iron deficiency anemia is caused by a violation of hemoglobin synthesis, oxygen transport and development of hypoxia in tissues. This is reflected in the feeling of constant weakness, increased fatigue, drowsiness. Patients are haunted by noise in the ears, flickering “flies” before the eyes, dizziness, passing into fainting. Typical complaints are palpitations, dyspnea arising from physical exertion, increased sensitivity to low temperatures. Circulatory-hypoxic disorders can aggravate the course of concomitant IHD, chronic heart failure.
Asthenovegetative disorders are manifested by irritability, emotional instability, decreased mental performance and memory. Since in conditions of iron deficiency IgA loses its activity, patients become prone to frequent incidence of ARVI , intestinal infections. A prolonged course of iron deficiency anemia can lead to the development of myocardial dystrophy , recognized by inversion of the T wave on the ECG.
Treatment of iron deficiency anemia
The main principles of iron deficiency anemia therapy include the elimination of etiological factors, the correction of the diet, and the replenishment of iron deficiency in the body. Etiotropic treatment is prescribed and performed by specialists gastroenterologists, gynecologists, proctologists, etc.