Ovulatory syndrome is a complex of disorders that occur when ovulation and associated with it. It develops on average two weeks before the next menstruation, lasting from a few hours to two days. It is manifested by pain in the lower abdomen, bloody discharge from the vagina, in a number of cases by raising the temperature to subfebrile digits, nausea, vomiting, emotional disorders. To confirm the diagnosis uses the methods of monitoring basal temperature, folliculometry, assessment of the level of luteinizing hormone and estrogens. Specific therapy is not required, with severe pain, the use of analgesics and antispasmodics is indicated.
Causes of ovulatory syndrome
There are a number of physiological causes that, in the presence of predisposing factors, contribute to the appearance of pathological manifestations during ovulation and within 48 hours after it. These include:
Growth of the follicle: An increase in the dominant ripening follicle to the required size is accompanied by an expansion of the ovary capsule. In this case, pain may develop.
Rupture of the follicle: The ovary membrane contains nerve endings. If the wall of the follicle is damaged, they are excited and transmit the corresponding signals to the cerebral cortex, which is perceived by a woman as ovulatory pain.
Reductions of fallopian tubes: The movement of the egg into the uterine cavity occurs under the action of contractions of the wall of the uterine tube. According to some researchers, peristalsis can be accompanied by painful sensations.
Irritation of the peritoneum: When the follicle ruptures, not only the egg but also the surrounding liquid enters the abdominal cavity, as well as a small amount of blood. As a result of irritation of the peritoneum, pain occurs.
Symptoms of ovulatory syndrome
Pathognomonic manifestation of a pathological condition is one-sided pain in the lower part of the abdomen. With a 28-day ovulatory cycle, pain occurs around the middle of the ovulatory cycle. There is a cycle of lesser or longer duration for 13-15 days before menstruation. The pain syndrome has a different intensity, from weak to acute. Often pain is given to the inguinal region, sacrum, lower back, intensified during walking, sexual intercourse, sudden changes in body position, lifting of weights, other physical exertion. A woman may notice the appearance of vaginal discharge. Usually they are scarce bloody or serous.
Treatment of ovulatory syndrome
There are no specific methods of treating disorders associated with ovulation. Treatment is symptomatic, focused mainly on the elimination of pain syndrome. Given the pathogenesis, such patients are prescribed analgesic and antispasmodic drugs. The intensity of pain is significantly reduced when applying thermal compresses or a warmer to the lower abdomen. During this period, sexual rest is recommended (except when the woman is planning a pregnancy), significant physical discharges are excluded. With a frequently occurring ovulatory syndrome, oral contraceptives can be used at the patient’s request and taking into account her reproductive plans, which do not cause painful manifestations.