Pathological anatomy of carotid chemodectoma

Pathological anatomy of carotid chemodectoma

Carotid chemodectomy is a tumor from the carotid glomus tissue located in the carotid bifurcation region. Most often it is benign, less infiltrative growth and metastasis is observed. Typical meager clinical symptoms, the only manifestation of carotid chemodectomy may be the presence of a tumor-like formation in the neck. There may be unpleasant sensations when swallowing and turning the head, dizziness, headache, voice change and short-term fainting when pressing on the tumor. Diagnosis is established based on complaints, examination data, ultrasound, CT, MRI and other studies.

Carotid chemodectom is a neoplasm originating from neuroendocrine cells, localized on the lateral surface of the neck, in the division of the common carotid artery. It belongs to the group of APUD-system tumors. It is rarely diagnosed. Signs of malignancy , according to various data, are detected in 6-25% of cases. There is a lack of correlation between the morphological structure of the cells of the carotid chemodectomy and its clinical manifestations. Perhaps a favorable course in the presence of histological signs of malignancy. As the main criterion of malignancy, the features of symptomatology (rapid growth, recurrence and metastasis) are considered.

The causes of carotid chemodectomy are unknown. Pathology can occur at any age, but more often affects patients 20-60 years. Female patients predominate. Usually, the tumor is found on one side, rarely bilateral. The disease can be detected in close relatives. For benign carotid chemodecks, slow progression is typical, cases are described where such tumors existed for 30 years or more. With malignancy, the prediction is uncertain some patients live for years and even decades, others die after several years from multiple metastases. The treatment is carried out by specialists in the field of oncology, vascular surgery and neurosurgery.

Carotid chemodectomy is a loose and soft, less often dense round or oval tumor-like formation with a size of 0.5 to 5 or more centimeters. It occurs from the carotid gland (sleep glomus) paraganglia, cells of which are supposedly involved in the regulation of blood pressure and carbohydrate metabolism.

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