Thrombocytopenia is a quantitative disorder of the thrombocytic component of hemostasis, characterized by a decrease in the number of platelets per unit volume of blood. Clinical signs of thrombocytopenia include increased bleeding from damaged skin and mucous membranes, a tendency to bruising and hemorrhagic rash, spontaneous bleeding of various localizations (nasal, gingival, uterine, uterine, etc.). Hematologic diagnostics is based on the study of a general blood test with platelet counting, immunological examination, bone marrow puncture. Possible methods of treatment of thrombocytopenia are drug therapy, splenectomy, extracorporeal cleansing of blood.
Causes of thrombocytopenia
Congenital thrombocytopenia is mostly part of hereditary syndromes such as Viscot-Aldrich Syndrome, Fanconi Anemia, Bernard-Soulier Syndrome, Meia-Hegglin anomaly, etc. As hereditary thrombocytopenia, as a rule, qualitative changes of platelets are also observed, they are usually referred to thrombocytopathy.
The causes of acquired thrombocytopenia are extremely diverse. Thus, compensation of blood loss by infusion media, plasma, erythrocyte mass may lead to a decrease in platelet concentration by 20-25% and the occurrence of so-called thrombocytopenia of the dilution.
Treatment of thrombocytopenia
In any condition, accompanied by increased bleeding, you should consult a hematologist. The first test for the diagnosis of thrombocytopenia is the examination of a general blood test with the calculation of the number of platelets. A peripheral blood smear can indicate a possible cause of thrombocytopenia; the presence of nucleated erythrocytes or immature leukocytes is likely to support hemoblastosis and requires a more in-depth examination (sternal puncture, trepanobiopsy).
To exclude coagulopathy, the hemostasiogram is examined; when suspicion of an autoimmune character of thrombocytopenia, antiplatelet antibodies are determined.